What are the different skin types that exist?

Written by: Kernel



Time to read 4 min

When you become interested in your skin and the world of facial care, you can quickly find yourself lost when faced with the range of existing products and finding those that would perfectly match your skin. Which treatments should be used for which skin types? Besides, what are the different types of skin that exist? And how do you know what your skin type is?

This article is here to answer all the questions you might have about the different skin types that exist.

There are four main types of skin: normal, dry, combination or oily.

First of all, there are four main skin types : normal skin, dry skin, combination skin and oily skin. Each of these skin types has different characteristics and requires appropriate facial care. Using facial treatments adapted to your skin type will allow you to benefit from all their benefits and obtain results for your skin problems.

On the contrary, using facial treatments not suited to your skin type will not provide results for your skin problems. This could even have a counterproductive effect in the worst case by accentuating existing skin problems. It is therefore necessary to know your skin type and choose your facial care accordingly.

Before describing the different existing skin types, it is important to remember that a person's skin type will depend on multiple genetic and environmental factors which can be divided into two large groups:

- internal factors: genetics, hormones, diet, sleep, stress, illness, sporting activity, sedentary lifestyle, etc.

- external factors: air pollution, chemical pollution, climate, temperature, exposure to the sun, consumption of tobacco, medications, alcohol, etc.

Here are the characteristics of the four existing skin types and what differentiates them in general.

1. Normal skin

Normal skin is the skin type that will serve as a reference to describe other skin types. Normal skin is skin that is neither oily nor dry, it is balanced skin.

It has a regular skin texture, few imperfections, few skin problems and tight pores that are difficult to see with the naked eye. Its level of sebum production and water hydration are balanced and will not cause problems.

Water will help prevent drying of the skin and normal sebum production will keep the skin's hydrolipidic film in good condition. The skin barrier will then play its role perfectly and will help fight against external aggressions such as pollution, the sun's rays or climate variations.

2. Dry skin

Dry skin is a type of skin characterized by dryness which will cause daily discomfort. It may cause tightness, tingling, itching or irritation. It will appear rough and show signs of drying out such as cracks or scales.

Dry skin will lack lipids (fatty substances) unlike normal skin and oily skin. She will also be dehydrated and lack water.

The hydrolipidic film of the skin made up of water and sebum will therefore not contain enough sebum to ensure the proper functioning of the skin barrier, which will cause a loss of water from the skin and its drying in addition to the expose to external aggression.

The origin of dry skin may be genetic or may be a consequence of age and the slowing down of sebum production by the sebaceous glands.

3. Oily skin

Oily skin is a type of skin that will naturally have excessive production of sebum, which we describe as hyperseborrhea. The skin's hydrolipidic film made up of water and sebum will therefore find itself overloaded and there will be the appearance of an oily film on the skin which will block the pores.

Obstruction of pores will cause the appearance of pimples, blackheads and acne in more severe cases. The skin texture will be irregular, the pores will be dilated and the skin will be oily and shiny, especially in the T zone of the face (forehead, nose, chin).

4. Combination skin

Combination skin is not considered as a separate skin type in dermatology unlike the other three skin types but rather as the combination of two skin types united on the same face.

Combination skin will be skin that will present the characteristics of oily skin on certain parts of the face and normal or dry skin on other parts.

The T zone of the face (forehead, nose, chin) will be oily, the skin will be oily and shiny with enlarged pores and imperfections (pimples and blackheads). The rest of the face will have either normal skin with regular skin texture, few imperfections and tight pores, or dry skin with cracks or scales.

The different skin types in summary

There are four main types of skin : normal, dry, combination or oily. Normal skin is skin that does not present any particular problems and has a smooth and supple appearance with regular skin texture without imperfections. Dry skin is skin lacking water and sebum which presents patches of dryness and causes discomfort such as tightness. Oily skin is skin that produces excess sebum which gives it a shiny, oily appearance with enlarged pores and blemishes. Combination skin is a mix between oily skin on the T zone and normal or dry skin on the rest of the face.

NB: There is also a final type of skin which is less commonly encountered but which can be mentioned, this is abnormal skin: skin with dandruff, poorly irrigated skin, deficient skin.